* Central African Republic * Darfur * Democratic Republic of Congo * Eastern Burma * Eastern Chad * Iraq * Sri Lanka * Somalia *

Central African Republic

Coordinated Aid Program for the Central African Republic – 2008

Human Rights Watch - State of Anarchy: Rebellion and Abuses against Civilians - Sept 2007

Internal Displacement Monitoring Center - Protection Crisis in the Central African Republic (PDF) - Jan 2007

Refugees International - Central African Republic: An Unknown Emergency in a Dangerous Region - Dec 2006

US State Department Human Rights Report - Central African Republic - March 2007

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African Union Documents:
Darfur Peace Agreement PDF (May 5, 2006)

Chair's Report on Darfur PDF (January 10, 2005)

Mandate in Darfur PDF (Oct. 30, 2004)

January Report of the Ceasefire Commission on the Situation in Darfur PDF (Jan. 3, 2005)

Other Key AU Documentation

International Crisis Group:
The Khartoum-SPLM Agreement: Sudan's Uncertain Peace (July 25, 2005)
Implementation [of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement] lags badly...The main obstacles are the old regime's lack of will to embrace genuine power sharing and elections...and lack of capacity in the South to establish and empower basic structures of governance....There are signs the NCP [National Congress Party] seeks to undercut implementation through its use of the militias, bribery, and through the tactics of divide and rule...these tactics will likely intensify if pressure over Darfur diminishes....The SPLM leadership must begin to democratise its movement and empower the nascent civil institutions of the new Government of Southern Sudan.

The AU's Mission in Darfur: Bridging the Gaps (July 6, 2005)
In view of the Sudanese government's abdication of its sovereign duty and to the extent that the AU cannot adequately protect Sudan's civilians, the broader international community has a responsibility to do so. Civilian protection needs to become the primary objective.

Poll: Do Americans Care About Darfur? PDF (Jun. 1, 2005)
The breadth of American support — across party and religious lines — for a much tougher response to the current situation in Darfur is striking. Some 84% of respondents said the United States should not tolerate an extremist government committing such attacks, and should use its military assets, short of combat troops, to help bring such attacks to a halt.

CrisisWatch No. 21 (Jun. 1, 2005)
Thirteen conflict situations around the world deteriorated in May 2005, according to this month's edition of CrisisWatch.

A New Sudan Action Plan (Apr. 26, 2005)
Despite the passage of important resolutions by the UN Security Council in the last week of March 2005, the situation in Sudan remains grave.

CrisisWatch No. 20 (Apr. 1, 2005)
Nine conflict situations around the world deteriorated in March 2005, according to the new edition of CrisisWatch.

Darfur: The Failure to Protect PDF (Mar. 5, 2005)
The UN Security Council must overcome divisions and act immediately to halt the mounting atrocities and death toll in Darfur. Three resolutions have failed to stem the violence; the fourth, now being debated, must be strong enough to make a difference. The key to stabilising the situation is to persuade Khartoum to fulfil its numerous commitments to disarm and neutralise the Janjaweed militia, but it will not do this as long as it believes the cost of inaction is minimal. Altering this calculus requires a resolution that: imposes targeted punitive measures; authorises the International Criminal Court to tackle atrocity crimes; and imposes a UN-authorised no-fly zone over Darfur. Equally vital, the inadequate African Union force in Darfur must be expanded to at least 10,000 and its mandate strengthened explicitly to protect civilians.

Crisis Watch No. 18 (Feb. 1, 2005)
Sudan's north-south peace was consolidated with the official signing of the Naivasha deal on 9 January, formally ending a decades-long war that claimed millions of lives; however, the grave crisis in Darfur remains.

Sudan's Partial Peace (Jan. 7, 2005)
If the parties uphold [the peace agreement], a principled peace will come to southern and central Sudan. If the government applies the blueprint it offers and moves vigorously towards peace in Darfur, the country could be transformed. But most indicators point towards a different outcome. The government is signing partially to deflect pressure over Darfur. It is likely to use resulting goodwill to increase attacks there and further undermine opposition elsewhere in the country. Without great international vigilance, implementation of the deal with the SPLM will slide, risking a standoff and return to war.

Crisis Watch No. 17 (Jan. 1, 2005)
In Sudan, the long-awaited signing on 31 December in Naivasha of a final peace accord between the government and Southern SPLA rebels was offset by deteriorating security in Darfur.

Crisis Watch No. 16 (Dec. 1, 2004)
Despite positive movement in peace talks between the Sudanese government and southern rebels, Darfur experienced increasing violence.

Get serious with Sudan (Nov. 18, 2004)
Op-ed published in The Baltimore Sun by John Prendergast. If the government chooses cooperation, peace throughout Sudan could be secured by early next year. Little of substance prevents a final deal with the southern rebels and forward progress with the Darfurian rebels.

Crisis Watch No. 15 (Nov. 1, 2004)
Diplomatic manoeuvring over Darfur crisis continued. Sudan accepted African Union (AU) force expansion ... government of Sudan retained primary security responsibility, disappointing hopes for more pro-active AU role.

Sudan's Dual Crises: Refocusing on IGAD (Oct. 5, 2004)
As the Darfur crisis understandably preoccupies the international community, inadequate attention is being paid to ending Sudan's 21-year old civil war between the Khartoum government and the mainly southern insurgency led by the [Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army]. The peace process mediated by the regional organisation IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development), looked close to finality in June 2004 but is now at risk.

Darfur Deadline: A New International Action Plan (Aug. 23, 2004)
The international response to the crisis in the western Sudanese region of Darfur remains limp and inadequate, its achievements so far desperately slight. The UN Security Council must, by its review deadline of 30 August 2004, endorse a new international action plan — taking tougher measures against the Khartoum government, which has acted in bad faith throughout the crisis, and authorising the African Union (AU), with stronger international support, to follow up more decisively its efforts to improve the situation on the ground and mediate a political settlement.

The United Nations:
Report on the International Commission of Inquiry to the United Nations Security Council (Sept. 2004)

Report of the Secretary-General and the Chairperson of the African Union Commission on the hybrid operation in Darfur$File/Full_Report.pdf

Security Council Monthly Updates on Sudan/Darfur

Security Council Report on the Sudan S-2007-213 (Most Recent)

United Nations Environment Program: “Environmental Degradation Triggering Tensions and Conflict in Sudan”

United Nations Joint Logistics Center Report on Emergency Shelter Update

United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) News Bulletins

United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) Press Briefings

World Food Program and UNICEF Emergency Food Security and Nutrition Assessment (April 2007)

Draft Outcome Document PDF (September 13, 2005)
"Each individual State has the responsibility to protect its populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. ... The international community, through the United Nations, also has the responsibility to use appropriate diplomatic, humanitarian and other peaceful means, in accordance with Chapter VI and VIII of the Charter, to help protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. In this context, we are prepared to take collective action, in a timely and decisive manner, through the Security Council, in accordance with the UN Charter, including Chapter VII, on a case by case basis and in cooperation with relevant regional organizations as appropriate, should peaceful means be inadequate and national authorities manifestly failing to protect their populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. ... We fully support the mission of the UN Special Advisor for the Prevention of Genocide"

UN - Report of the Secretary-General S/2005/411 PDF (June 23, 2005)
"UNMIS has liased and coordinated closely at all levels with the African Union Mission in the Sudan (AMIS) to reinforce African Union-led efforts to foster peace in Darfur...AMIS provides escort to humanitarian assistance convoys when requested by the United Nations on the ground. It has also been agreed that AMIS would provide escort and protection for UNMIS human rights officers who need to travel to areas of conflict, which are usually the areas where the most grave human rights violations occur and have thus far been inaccessible to UNMIS human rights personnel....I was particularly moved by a meeting I had with a group of women at Kalma, who were still living in fear despite the marked improvement in living conditions that had come with the arrival of AMIS....It is also important to stress that those responsible for the atrocities committed in Darfur will be held accountable for their actions. Impunity will not be tolerated. Subjecting these individuals to the rule of law and due process will send a clear and powerful message that the Sudan is beginning to fulfil the promise of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which envisages a just, prosperous, and democratic country where all Sudanese live in safety and in dignity, with full faith in the future."

Report of the Secretary-General S/2005/378 PDF (June 9, 2005)
"The overall level of violence, especially against civilians, was lower than in much of 2004. In a monthly context, however...the month of May witnessed an increase in the level of violence and insecurity as compared to April....There are indications, however, that the number of rapes saw a modest decrease in the month of May due, in large part, to the increased presence of soldiers and police from the African Union Mission in the Sudan (AMIS) in and around camps for internally displaced persons....The growing insecurity in certain areas, coupled with the onset of the rainy season, will only make the delivery of humanitarian aid that much more difficult."

Report of the Secretary-General S/2005/305 PDF (May 10, 2005)
"While there were fairly few systematic attacks in April, troop movements and the illegal occupation of new positions increased, as did harassment, burning of unoccupied villages, kidnapping, banditry (including carjacking, armed robbery, and theft of livestock), attacks on civilians and rape by militia....Although the African Union Mission in the Sudan has had a positive impact in the locations where it has been deployed, insufficient resources have meant that the Mission has been unable to provide the protection to civilians that is so badly needed throughout Darfur."

Report of the Secretary-General S/2005/240 PDF (Apr. 12, 2005)
"The conflict that has plagued the three Darfur State of the Sudan since early 2003 did not ease during the month of March. Indeed, some positive trends that were evident in February have apparently stalled, or been slightly reversed, since my last report....Security in and around camps for internally displaced persons remained unstable, with cases of harassment of civilians by armed militias, particularly of women and girls who ventured out of the camps."

Report of the Secretary-General S/2005/140 PDF (Mar. 4, 2005)
"...during this period of relative calm, the international community must not miss the opportunity to strengthen the position of the African Union force in Darfur."

Report of the Secretary-General S/2005/68 PDF (Feb. 4, 2005)
"...the presence and pro-active initiatives taken by the African Union mission have surpassed expectations. The mission has facilitated the movement of humanitarian relief, prevented the escalation of violence by mediating between groups of fighters and moving to pre-empt attacks by deploying to likely flashpoints. The African Union force is also providing a valuable neutral assessment of the situation, defusing tensions through diplomatic efforts and providing security by its presence. It needs and deserves the continued and enhanced support of the entire international community."

Report of the Secretary-General S/2005/57 PDF (Jan. 31, 2005)
"The African Union and the African Mission in the Sudan must be commended for their work in Darfur, carried out under increasingly challenging circumstances and with limited resources....the scale of humanitarian needs will remain enormous in much of the Sudan, particularly in Darfur, but also in many parts of the south and east of the country....Ultimately, peace in the Sudan is indivisible, as are international efforts to support it, including the deployment of a United Nations operation. Support to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement is the most promising path to a resolution of other political crises facing the Sudan, most notably in Darfur."

Report of the Secretary-General S/2005/10 PDF (Jan. 7, 2005)
"The humanitarian situation in Darfur has not improved since my last report, as the benefits of increased humanitarian aid have been offset by the worsening security situation that has set off another round of displacements and increased the vulnerability of civilians..."

Report of the Secretary-General S/2004/947 PDF (Dec. 3, 2004)
"After the signing of the humanitarian and security protocols in Abuja on 9 November, Darfur was relatively calm for about one week. However, the situation deteriorated towards the end of November..."

Report of the Secretary-General S/2004/881 PDF (Nov. 2, 2004)
"However, the month of October has seen a deterioration in security conditions in Darfur."

Report of the Secretary-General S/2004/787 PDF (Oct. 4, 2004)
"The Government [of Sudan] also stated that it would welcome international assistance, in particular more forces from the African Union (AU), to carry out more tasks, over and above the monitoring of the ceasefire."

Report of the Secretary-General S/2004/763 PDF (Sept. 28, 2004)
"The humanitarian challenge in the Sudan remains enormous as the crisis continues in Darfur and other parts of the country remain beset by ethnic tensions, chronic instability and conflict, as well as acute food insecurity."

Report of the Secretary-General S/2004/703 PDF (Aug. 30, 2004)
"...there were no indications at the beginning of August that the Government had taken any measures to 'immediately start to disarm the Janjaweed and other armed outlaw groups', as required under the joint communiqué..."

UN Resolutions:
Resolution S/RES/1593 PDF (Mar. 31, 2005)
"...nationals, current or former officials or personnel from a contributing State outside Sudan which is not a party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court shall be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of that contributing State for all alleged acts or omissions arising out of or related to operations in Sudan established or authorized by the Council or the African Union."

UN Resolution S/RES/1591 PDF (Mar. 29, 2005)
"...the Government of Sudan, in accordance with its commitments under the 8 April 2004 N’djamena Ceasefire Agreement and the 9 November 2004 Abuja Security Protocol, immediately cease conducting offensive military flights in and over the Darfur region, and invites the African Union Ceasefire Commission to share pertinent information as appropriate in this regard with the Secretary-General, the Committee, or the Panel of Experts"

UN Resolution S/RES/1590 PDF (Mar. 24, 2005)
"...the Secretary-General and the Government of Sudan, following appropriate consultation with the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement, conclude a status-of-forces agreement within 30 days of adoption of the resolution..."

UN Resolution S/RES/1588 PDF (Mar. 17, 2005)
"Decides to extend the mandate of the United Nations Advance Mission in Sudan (UNAMIS), established by its resolution 1547 (2004), until 24 March 2005."

UN Resolution S/RES/1574 PDF (Nov. 19, 2004)
"Expressing its serious concern at the growing insecurity and violence in Darfur, the dire humanitarian situation, continued violations of human rights and repeated breaches of the ceasefire."

UN Resolution S/RES/1564 PDF (Sept. 18, 2004)
"Expressing grave concern at the lack of progress with regard to security and the protection of civilians, disarmament of the Janjaweed militias and identification and bringing to justice of the Janjaweed leaders responsible for human rights and international humanitarian law violations in Darfur."

UN Resolution S/RES/1556 PDF (Jul. 30, 2004)
Endorses the deployment of international monitors, including the protection force envisioned by the African Union, to the Darfur region of Sudan under the leadership of the African Union and urges the international community to continue to support these efforts."

UN Situation Reports:
Sudan Information Gateway
UN Situation Reports provide an overview of the current situation in Darfur and date back historically to February 2004. The reports are distributed three days a week and include information on key developments, political/civil affairs and humanitarian issues.

Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General PDF (Jan. 25, 2005)
"...investigate reports of violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law in Darfur by all parties, to determine also whether or not acts of genocide have occurred, and to identify the perpetrators of such violations with a view to ensuring that those responsible are held accountable..."

Access to Justice for Victims of Sexual Violence, Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights PDF (Jul. 29, 2005)
"This report assesses the extent to which the Government of the Sudan has lived up to its commitments with regard to investigating and punishing sexual violence in Darfur, and in bringing such violence to an end. ... Rape and gang rape continue to be perpetrated by armed elements in Darfur, some of whom are members of law enforcement agencies and the armed forces, and the Government appears either unable or unwilling to hold them accountable."

Sudan Situation Report 16 (Oct. 16, 2005)
"On 13 Oct., the bodies of the two AMIS soldiers abducted during the last week's ambush on an AMIS patrol near Menawashi, South Darfur, were discovered just a few hundred metres from the original ambush position. This brings the ambush death toll to seven (five AMIS Nigerian soldiers and two civilian contractors)."

Darfur IDP gatherings map (Oct. 8, 2005)

Sudan: Affected population (as of August 2005) (Sep. 18, 2005)

Chad: Sudan, Refugee and IDP population (as of 30 Apr. 2005) (May 17, 2005)

Human Rights Watch:
Darfur: Arrest War Criminals, Not Aid Workers (May 31, 2005)
Donor governments and the United Nations must condemn the Sudanese governments arbitrary arrest and intimidation of aid workers, Human Rights Watch said today. The Sudanese government should drop charges against all aid workers, including the head of Medecins Sans Frontieres in Khartoum, Paul Foreman, who was arrested yesterday and released on bail.
Darfur: Aid Workers Under Threat (Apr. 5, 2005)
The Sudanese government has sought to intimidate humanitarian relief agencies in Darfur by arbitrarily arresting or detaining at least 20 aid workers since December, Human Rights Watch said today. In several incidents, the rebel movements in Darfur have also detained or attacked aid workers.

U.N. Security Council Refers Darfur to the ICC (Mar. 31, 2005)
The U.N. Security Council resolution referring Darfur to the International Criminal Court is a historic step toward justice for massive human rights violations committed in the western Sudanese region, Human Rights Watch said today. At the same time, the Security Council should help ensure an increased force on the ground to protect civilians and stabilize the deteriorating security situation.

U.N.: Pass Resolution to Refer Darfur to ICC (Mar. 25, 2005)
U.N. Security Council members should urgently pass a new French-proposed resolution that would refer Darfur to the International Criminal Court, Human Rights Watch said today. The United States should abstain on the vote if it decides not to vote in favor.

U.S. Thwarts Justice for Darfur (Mar. 24, 2005)
The United States is blocking U.N. Security Council action on the human rights crisis in Darfur on account of the Bush administration s hostility to the International Criminal Court, Human Rights Watch said today. On Tuesday, the United States proposed splitting a U.N. Security Council draft resolution on Sudan into three separate resolutions, none of which would authorize a tribunal to prosecute crimes against humanity in Darfur.

U.N.: No More Delay on Darfur (Mar. 18, 2005)
United Nations Security Council members that support protecting civilians in Darfur should urgently co-sponsor a resolution referring Darfur to the International Criminal Court, Human Rights Watch said today. Today the Security Council extended by one week the mandate of the temporary international force in Sudan because it has been unable to agree on a package of measures to address the Darfur crisis and establish a peacekeeping force for Sudan more generally.

Targeting the Fur: Mass Killings in Darfur (Jan. 24, 2005)
To date, the Sudanese government has neither improved security for civilians nor ended the impunity enjoyed by its own officials and allied militia leaders. Immediate action including an increased international presence in rural areas of Darfur is needed to improve protection of civilians and reverse ethnic cleansing. International prosecutions are also essential to provide accountability for crimes against humanity and ensure justice for the victims in Darfur.

UN.: Security Council Must Act on Darfur (Mar. 17, 2005)
In this letter to select U.N. Security Council members, Human Rights Watch urges governments to immediately co-sponsor a resolution referring horrific crimes in Darfur to the International Criminal Court. Human Rights Watch also calls for the implementation of measures such as more rigorous targeted sanctions, a no-fly zone, and a substantially increased African Union presence on the ground to provide a measure of protection to civilians in Darfur.

Sudan: Human Rights Concerns for the 61st Session of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights (Mar. 10, 2005)
Human Rights Watch calls on the Commission on Human Rights to re-establish the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on human rights for Sudan, and condemn gross abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law by the government of Sudan, its allied Janjaweed and other militia, and rebel groups in Darfur.

U.N. Rights Body Must Fight to Restore Credibility (Mar. 8, 2005)
With a membership that includes governments responsible for crimes against humanity, the U.N. Commission on Human Rights meeting in Geneva next week must take dramatic steps to restore its sinking credibility, Human Rights Watch said today.

U.N.: U.S. Seeks to Delay Justice for Darfur (Mar. 7, 2005)
After its meeting today with U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the Security Council should take urgent steps to protect civilians in Darfur and refer the situation to the International Criminal Court, Human Rights Watch said. Meanwhile, the United States has proposed a 45-day delay in taking a decision on justice for Darfur’s victims.

Video Transcript: Exclusive Video Interview with Alleged Janjaweed Leader (Mar. 2, 2005)
In late September 2004, a Human Rights Watch delegation interviewed Musa Hilal, a tribal leader from North Darfur who has allegedly organized Janjaweed militia to attack non-Arab tribes.

Darfur: Militia Leader Implicates Khartoum (Mar. 2, 2005)
A top Janjaweed leader says the Sudan government backed and directed militia activities in northern Darfur, according to a videotape ( released by Human Rights Watch today.

Musa Hilal in His Own Words (Mar. 2, 2005)
This is the exact English translation of Musa Hilal speaking on tape ( to Human Rights Watch. For a full transcript of the video, with the voice over included, click here (

Darfur: New Atrocities as Security Council Dithers (Feb. 25, 2005)
New eyewitness accounts from Darfur of rapes, torture and mutilation by government-backed militias underscore how the U.N. Security Council must take urgent action to protect civilians and punish the perpetrators, Human Rights Watch said today.

U.N. Rights Chief Details Crimes in Darfur (Feb. 16, 2005)
The top U.N. human rights official will brief the Security Council today on atrocities in Darfur. Following Louise Arbour’s report, the Security Council should take prompt action to protect civilians and refer Darfur to the International Criminal Court, Human Rights Watch said.

U.N. Commission of Inquiry on Why Alternatives to the ICC Are Inadvisable for Darfur (Feb. 15, 2005)
This excerpt is taken from Section IV of the Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General, dated January 25, 2005. The following paragraphs discuss the commission’s findings with regard to the inadvisability of mechanisms other than the International Criminal Court to bring justice for crimes in Darfur.

U.S. Proposal for a Darfur Tribunal: Not an Effective Option to Ensure Justice (Feb. 15, 2005)
A U.N. Commission of Inquiry that the United States helped create recently found that the International Criminal Court (ICC) is the “single best mechanism” and the “only credible way” of ensuring justice for Darfur’s victims. The U.N. Commission of Inquiry also detailed in depth in its report why other mechanisms would be inadvisable to bring justice for atrocities in Darfur. Because Sudan is not a party to the treaty establishing the ICC, a Security Council referral is needed for the court to prosecute crimes committed in Darfur.

EU Should Push for ICC Referral of Darfur During Rice Visit (Feb. 9, 2005)
The EU Troika should send a clear message to U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice that the Security Council must refer Darfur to the International Criminal Court at the Feb. 10 EU-USA Ministerial Meeting in Luxembourg, Human Rights Watch said today. The first visit of Secretary of State Rice to Europe is a timely opportunity for the EU to raise the importance of accountability for crimes committed in Darfur.

Letter to UN Security Council on Proposed Peace Support Mission to Sudan (Feb. 9, 2005)
We welcome Secretary-General Kofi Annan’s recent report on Sudan to the Security Council (S/2005/57) and its proposal for the establishment of a multidimensional U.N. peace support mission in Sudan. We applaud the Secretary-General’s proposals on protection, the integration into the U.N. operation of human rights monitoring throughout Sudan to include a significant presence in Darfur, and the emphasis on the need to develop a transitional justice strategy in accordance with the Secretary-General’s report “The Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Post-conflict Societies” (S/2004/616). Human Rights Watch urges the Security Council to explicitly include these elements in the resolution that you will soon be adopting. We also take this opportunity to suggest ways to strengthen the current proposals to improve human rights and civilian protection in Sudan as a whole and Darfur in particular.

Justice for Darfur needs more than "consensus" (Feb. 7, 2005)
Last week, a United Nations commission of inquiry strongly recommended prosecutions at the International Criminal Court for those responsible for the killing fields of Darfur. The commission emphasised that alternatives to the ICC, as proposed by Washington, would be cumbersome and expensive. Britain"s ambassador to the UN, Sir Emyr Jones Parry, rightly noted that the court, set up to prosecute genocide and crimes against humanity, is "tailor-made" for cases such as Darfur.

U.S. Fiddles Over ICC While Darfur Burns (Jan. 31, 2005)
The Bush administration is creating a deadly delay for the people of Darfur by attempting to block the U.N. Security Council from referring Darfur atrocities to the International Criminal Court, Human Rights Watch said in a letter ( to U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.

Darfur: Prosecutions Needed to End Atrocities (January 24, 2005)
International prosecutions are needed to deter ongoing atrocities in Darfur, Human Rights Watch said today in a report ( documenting crimes the Sudanese government and its allied militias have committed with complete impunity.

Targeting the Fur: Mass Killings in Darfur (January 24, 2005)
Since February 2003, Darfur has been the scene of massive crimes against civilians of particular ethnicities in the context of an internal conflict between the Sudanese government and a rebel insurgency. Almost two million people have been forcibly displaced and stripped of all their property and tens of thousands of people have been killed, raped or assaulted.

Don’t Quench Thirst for Oil With Blood (January 21, 2005)
As an emerging power increasingly seeking a global role, Beijing should recognize that its economic concerns must give way to the imperative of stopping the slaughter of the people of Darfur.
The Africa Agenda (January 21, 2005)
If Condoleezza Rice's testimony this week at her Senate confirmation hearing as secretary of state is an indicator of the Bush administration's plans for Africa, Africans and the human rights community should be worried.

U.S.: ICC Best Chance for Justice in Darfur (January 21, 2005)
A Security Council referral to the International Criminal Court (ICC) is the course of action that can best guarantee efficient and effective prosecution of those most responsible for the atrocities committed in the Darfur region of Sudan. Human Rights Watch urges the United States to set aside its opposition to the ICC in this specific case of declared genocide by supporting or at least abstaining from a Security Council referral of the situation in Darfur.

No Justice for Sudan (January 10, 2005)
The deal ending 20 years of war will not bring the guilty to account, HRW researcher Leslie Lefkow writes in London's Guardian.

Sudan: Atrocities, Impunity Threaten Lasting Peace (January 6, 2005)
Continuing atrocities in the western region of Darfur and impunity for war crimes in the south jeopardize prospects for peace in Sudan, Human Rights Watch warned today ahead of the January 9 signing of a peace agreement to end the 21-year conflict in the south.

Grave Crimes: Darfur and the International Criminal Court (January 1, 2005)
The United Nations Security Council has taken some belated measures to stop the violence in Darfur, but its response has been woefully inadequate. Prosecution of those responsible could make a real difference. Given the gravity of the crimes and the Sudanese government’s unwillingness to act, investigation and prosecution by the International Criminal Court could hold the key.

Human Rights Day Statement (December 10, 2004)
As we commemorate Human Rights Day, we are challenged by how little the world has done to save the people of Darfur, in western Sudan, from the year’s greatest human rights disaster. With the Sudanese government and its ethnic militia well along in their campaign of murder, rape, pillage, and forced displacement, and after several Security Council resolutions on the Darfur crisis, the governments of the world can no longer claim not to know.

Darfur: Peace Talks Must Address Civilian Protection (December 10, 2004)
The African Union must speed its deployment of troops to Darfur and seek to expand their mandate to protect civilians.

Darfur: U.N. Backtracks in Sudan Resolution (November 19, 2004)
The U.N. Security Council has retreated from its previous stance to hold the Sudanese government accountable for the ongoing human rights abuses in Darfur, Human Rights Watch said today. A new resolution was passed today by a unanimous vote of the Security Council's 15 members.

Sudan: Human Rights Accountability Must Be Part of North-South Peace Agreement (November 18, 2004)
In 2003, as hopes were rising that the government of Sudan would agree to an internationally-brokered settlement of the 21-year civil war in the South, the same government unleashed a brutal counterinsurgency campaign in the Darfur region of western Sudan. These two developments were not unrelated.

Sudan: Peace Deal Must Tackle Past Abuses (November 18, 2004)
The impunity enjoyed by the Sudanese authorities in their ongoing atrocities in Darfur demonstrates why the near-final peace deal to end the country’s North-South conflict must include accountability for human rights abuses, Human Rights Watch said today.

Bring the Darfur Killers to the World Court (November 18, 2004)
"Making the rounds in Khartoum," HRW Executive Director Kenneth Roth recounts in an article for The Financial Times, "I sensed that serious threat of prosecution at the ICC could help Darfur."

Canada's Darfur Imperatives (November 16, 2004)
Prime Minister Paul Martin should use his trip to Sudan to advance his stated quest to define a new, more activist, international role for Canada, Georgette Gagnon argues in The Globe and Mail.

Sudan: Safe Darfur Returns Imperative (November 15, 2004)
The U.N. Security Council must take immediate action to reverse ethnic cleansing and avert further displacement in the western Sudanese region of Darfur, Human Rights Watch said in a report released today. On November 18-19, the Security Council will convene in Nairobi for a special session on Sudan.

 “If We Return, We Will Be Killed” Consolidation of Ethnic Cleansing in Darfur, Sudan (November 15, 2004)
This report documents the continuing climate of violence and insecurity in Darfur, and the urgent need for an expanded international protection force, especially near the camps that hold many of Darfur’s 1.6 million displaced persons. Just this week, as the U.N. Security Council prepared to meet in Nairobi, Sudanese security forces brazenly overran camps for the displaced persons.

UAE: Release Sudanese Opposition Figure (November 9, 2004)
Human Rights Watch is concerned for the safety of Abdel Aziz Khalid, who was detained by United Arab Emirates immigration authorities at Abu Dhabi Airport on September 23, 2004.

Darfur: Donors Must Address Atrocities Fueling Crisis (September 27, 2004)
Donor governments gathering today in Oslo to discuss humanitarian needs in Darfur should also take steps to end the serious human rights abuses responsible for the crisis, Human Rights Watch said today. Donors should pledge support for civilian protection under an expanded African Union (AU) mission in Darfur.

New Video Documents Ongoing Crimes in Darfur (September 21, 2004)
Human Rights Watch and WITNESS ( have released a new video documenting atrocities committed against civilians in Darfur, western Sudan. The video includes scenes of burned and bombed villages and extensive interviews with the civilian victims of the crisis. Villagers interviewed for the video describe attacks by "Janjaweed" militias operating in concert with Sudanese government forces, including an attack as recent as mid-July 2004.

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Democratic Republic of Congo

Human Rights Watch report (October 2007) - Renewed Crisis in North Kivu

International Crisis Group report (October 2007) - Congo: Bringing Peace to North Kivu

ENOUGH Project - Averting the Nightmare Scenario in Eastern Congo - Sept 2007.

US State Department Country Reports on Human Rights - Democratic Republic of the Congo - March 2007

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Human Rights Watch - Vote to Nowhere: The May 2008 Constitutional Referendum in Burma [PDF]

American Association of the Advancement of Science - Satellite Images Report - 2007 [PDF]

Berkeley Human Rights Center - The Gathering Storm: Infectious Diseases and Human Rights in Burma - July 2007

Free Burma Rangers - Families Flee; A Wild Boar Attacks, and Choosing Hope (PDF)

Human Rights Watch - The Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers in Burma - October 2007

Human Rights Watch: The Plight of Internally Displaced Persons in Karen State - June 2005

National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma - Human Rights Yearbook 2006

Refugees International - No Safe Place: Burma's Army and the Rape of Ethnic Women

Thailand Burma Border Consortium - Internally Displaced Persons Report - 2007 [PDF]

Amnesty International - Lack of Security in Counter-Insurgency Areas – 2002

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Eastern Chad

Amnesty International - No protection from rape and violence for displaced women and girls in eastern Chad

Amnesty International - The Child Soldier Prevention Act of 2007 (PDF)

Human Rights Watch - Early to War - Child Soldiers in the Chad Conflict, July 2007

Human Rights Watch - Ensuring Civilian Protection in Chad - The Proposed UN Mission, Feb 2007

Internal Displacement Monitoring Center - Internally Displaced in Chad: Trapped Between Civil Conflict and Darfur's crisis, July 2007

International Crisis Group - Chad: back towards war? - June 2006

US Institute of Peace Briefing - Sudanese-Chadian Relations

US State Department Human Rights Report

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Amnesty International Report - Iraq - 2007

Brookings Institution - Security, Displacement and Iraq: A Deadly Combination - August 2007

Center for Strategic and International Studies - Iraq's Sectarian and Ethnic Violence and its Evolving Insurgency - April 2007 [PDF]

Human Rights Watch - Rot Here or Die There: The Bleak Choices of Iraqi Refugees in Lebanon - Dec. 2007

Human Rights Watch - A Face and a Name: Civilian Victims of Insurgent Groups in Iraq - 2005

International Crisis Group - Shiite Politics in Iraq: the Role of the Supreme Council

International Crisis Group - Where is Iraq heading? Lessons from Basra - June 2007

Iraq Study Report [PDF]

Iraqi Red Crescent - Internally Displaced People in Iraq - Nov. 2007 [PDF]

US Government Accountability Office - Securing, Stabilizing and Rebuilding Iraq - Sept. 2007 [PDF]

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Amnesty International - Routinely Targeted: Attacks on Civilians in Somalia (PDF)

Danish Immigration Service - Human rights and security in central and southern Somalia

Human Rights Watch - Caught in a Quagmire - Dec 2007

Human Rights Watch - Shell-Shocked: Civilians under Siege in Mogdishu - August 2007

International Crisis Group - Somalia: the Tough Part is Ahead - Jan. 2007

International Crisis Group - Can the Somali Crisis be Contained? - Aug 2006

US State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Somalia

US Institute of Peace - How to Respond to Somalia's Current Crisis - August 2006

World Bank - Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics - Jan. 2005

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Sri Lanka

Human Rights Watch - Return to War: Human Rights Under Siege - August 2007

International Crisis Group - Sri Lanka: Sinhala Nationalism and the Elusive Southern Consensus - November 2007

International Crisis Group - Sri Lanka's Human Rights Crisis - June 2007

Internationl Crisis Group - Sri Lanka's Muslims: Caught in the Crossfire - May 2007

International Crisis Group - Sri Lanka: The Failure of the Peace Process - Nov. 2006

US State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Sri Lanka - March 2007

International Study Center - Breaking the Silence - April 2008

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